Investigative Skills in Science Proposal: The Mpemba Effect

Group Research Proposal: 

Names: Low Tjun Lym, Lew Jia Jun, Liew Yong Jun Javier, Joshua Yew Jek Yong
Class: S2-02
Group Reference: E

1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

X ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the speed of freezing depending on the temperature of water

[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

   ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene 

[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

[    ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  

2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:

Title: An investigation of the Mpemba effect: Does hot water freeze faster than cold water?

A.    Question or Problem being addressed

We wanted to find out if hot water freezes cold water
The independent variable is the temperature of water
The dependent variable is the time taken for the water to freeze
The constants are:
a) The amount of water
b) The size of the beaker (Surface area, width etc)
c) Temperature of refrigerator

B.    Goals / Expected Outcomes / Hypotheses

The lower the temperature, the faster the water freezes.

C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

4 pairs of gloves ( use the same ones from the previous test)
2 Clean SMALL Beakers (Approx. 50ml)
1 Bunsen Burner
2 LARGER beakers (Approx. 500ml)
Liquid Nitrogen / Dry Ice
300ml of Water
2 Data-loggers with temperature probe

1. Fill up both small beakers with 30ml of water 
2. Heat 1 beaker of water until 70ºC
3. Fill up both larger beakers with 250ml of Liquid Nitrogen
4. Place both small beakers into the larger beakers, as shown in the diagram above.
5. Record the process of the freezing and record it with the data-logger
6. Write down the temperature of the water every minute until it freezes 
7. Repeat the experiment 3 more times, but add salt and sugar into the hot and cold water equally (10g each)

Risk and Safety

1. We may scald ourselves with the hot water after boiling
2. We may get frostbite from handling the Ice

Data Analysis

1. Take down the time taken for water to freeze
2. Plot a graph to show the difference in time taken for the water to freeze
3. From the graph, we can see the difference in time in proportion to the temperature.

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